This system used the existing FuBl 1 for guided landing with a frequency of 30-33 MHz. Two or more Knickebein-systems were needed to define the target position.

N Klepp
  K2 D Stollberg
  K3 NL - BP 45a - WN 134 L Julianadorp
  K5 NL - BP 554 Bergen Op Zoom
  K6 F - Stp Knickebein Mont Violette
  K8 F Mont Pincon
  K9 F - WN 379 Beaumont
  K10 F Sortosville-en-Beaumont
  K11 F - Mo 48c St. Fiacre
  K12 D Lörrach
  K13 I Noto


Developed in the early 1930s using 66-77 MHz. It uses a main beam and 3 crossing beams to guide bombers to England.

F - Stp 140 Osnabrück Mont de Couple
  X3 Oder F - Stp 140 Osnabrück Mont de Couple
  X4 Elbe F - Stp 140 Osnabrück Mont de Couple
  X5 Weser F - WN 384 Beaumont Hague


This system was the successor of the X-Verfahren using 42-48 MHz. It uses a single beam transmitting a modulated radio signal, that was received in the plane and then returned to the gound station. Here it was possible to calculate the position of the plane and to give corrections by radio. The system was interferenced from the beginning and not long in service.

N Stavanger
  Y3 Cicero F - Va 012 Conteville
  Y4 Dora F Saint Martin aux Buneaux
  Y6 Gustav F - Stp 193 Neckarsulm Boursin


Not really a system based on beacons, but more a positioning system. Called UKW-Drehfunkfeueranlage this system rotates on demand and sends two continous beams in the range of 30-33MHz. It went operational in 1941. The airplane was equiped with the FuG 120 Bernhardine, printing the position of the sender on a Hellschreiber. This enabled the navigator to find the position of the plane.

D Glau
  Be 1 F Favieres
  Be 2 F St-Michel de Brasparts
  Be 3 F Le Bois Julien
  Be 4 F - WN 162 La Pernelle
  Be 5 F Saint-Michel-Mont-Mercure
  Be 6 F Marlemont
  Be 7 F Arcachon
  Be 8 NL - WN 34 L Schoorl
  Be 10 DK Hundborg
  Be 11 PL Raszow
  Be 13 D Burke
  Be 15 PL Wiezcyca
  Be 16 A Hornstein


At the end of 1940 the LW-Leitstrahl-Fächer-Funkfeuer Elektra-system was developed. It operated at 250-300 KHz and had 3 antennas spaced by 3 wavelenghts. The LW-Leitstrahlfächer-Drehfunkfeuern Sonne-system was an improvement developed in 1942. The signal was now slowly rotating.

F - WN 51 Semaphore Le Chaos
  Elektra-Sonne 3 F - WN 55 Port en Bessin
  Sonne 5 NL - BP55a - Stp Elektra Petten Camperduin


The work on the UKW-Fächer-Phasendrehfunkfeuer Erika finished late in august 1944, where there was no more need for this system and it never went working. It worked at 30-33.3MHz and used 2 antennas with 40 Hz difference spaced in 3 wavelengths. It was intended to be used by special precision bombers to attac England.

F - Stp 265 Lungenkraut Boulogne
  Erika II F - WN 159 St. Pierre Eglise